PAST CONFERENCE REPORT
Polymer Science 2020 Report
The “6th Edition of International Conference on Polymer Science and Technology” was held on
September 28-29, 2020
conducted as webinar (online event) with the presence of professional researchers, scientists involved in the development of high-quality education & research in all aspects.
Polymer Science 2010 witnessed an amalgamation of peerless speakers who enlightened the crowd with their knowledge and confabulated on various topics related to the field of Polymer Chemistry. The highly exalted conference hosted by EuroSciCon was marked with the attendance of renowned and brilliant researchers, business delegates and talented student communities representing more than 20 countries around the world. The conference has tried grounding every aspect related to Polymer Chemistry, covering all the possible research areas.
The conference aimed a parallel rail with theme “Expedite Polymer Innovation For Solving Covid-19 Challenges”. The meeting engrossed a vicinity of cognizant discussions on Polymer Science -The Future, Polymers In Industries, Polymer Material Science, Polymer Engineering, Polymer Nanotechnology, Polymer Chemistry, Recent Developments In Polymer Synthesis, Composite Polymeric Material, Advanced Polymers, Role Of Polymers In Biology And Biological Systems, Polymer Physics, Bioplastics And Biopolymers, Polymer Rheology, Applications Of Polymer Materials, Smart & Functional Polymers, Polymers In Wastes And Their Environmental Impact, Polymers In Petroleum Industries, Polymers In Everyday Life, Polymers For Drug Delivery System, Biopolymers & Biomedical Engineering, Polymeric Compounds, Polymers For Emerging Technologies, Polymeric Materials. The two days event implanted a firm relation of upcoming strategies in the field of Polymer Chemistry with the scientific community. The conceptual and applicable knowledge shared, will also foster organizational collaborations to nurture scientific accelerations.
We are thankful to all our speakers for encouraging and supporting us to conduct the conference and catapulting the same to pinnacle of success.
We would also like to thank our Poster judge Tsukasa Miyazaki, Comprehensive Research Organization for Science and Society (CROSS), Neutron Science and Technology Center, Japan for the evaluation of Poster Presentations.
The meeting was embarked with an opening ceremony followed by Keynote Sessions and followed by series of lectures delivered by Honorable Guests and members of the Keynote forum. The highlights of the meeting were the eponymous lectures, delivered by:
Hiroyuki Aoki, J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan
Zuzanna Buchwald, Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Tsukasa Miyazaki, Comprehensive Research Organization for Science and Society (CROSS), Neutron Science and Technology Center, Japan
Hsin-Wei Jung, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taiwan
Emine Gul Cansu-Ergun, Baskent University, Turkey
Wael Mahmoud Ahmed Darwish, National Research Centre, Egypt
Pourya Zarshenas, Shahid Beheshti University, Iran
Pablo R Outon, Indresmat SL, Spain
Rahima S Mammadova, Azerbaijan State Pedagogical University, Azerbaijan
Sheta Mohamed, National Research Centre, Egypt
Rahima S Mammadova, Azerbaijan State Pedagogical University, Azerbaijan
Geum Chae Jang, Raphas Co. Ltd, South Korea
Jung Hyun Bae, Raphas Co. Ltd, South Korea
All of them provided their fruitful contributions in the form of highly informative presentations and made the conference a top notch one.
EuroSciCon is prerogative to thank the Organizing Committee Members, Keynote speakers and Chairs on transcribing the plenary sessions and workshop in a diversified and variegate manner to make this conference an enviable artifact.
EuroSciCon offers its heartfelt appreciation to our Exhibitor “Physical Electronics GmbH, Germany”. We also express our sincere thanks to all the media partners for the promotion of our event to glory.
With the grand success of Polymer Science 2019, we are glad to announce our next upcoming conference “7th Edition of International Conference and Exhibition on Polymer Science and Technology” which is going to be held in Berlin, Germany during September 13-14, 2021.
Bookmark your dates…
Hoping to meet you again coming year at Berlin, Germany!!!
1. Discovery of Antibiotics
Innovation has been a noteworthy driver of advances in medication
disclosure. Computerization, Nano fluidics, imaging, programming
and test advances have assumed a noteworthy part in showing signs of improvement information
, quicker. Is medication disclosure
at such a propelled state, to the point that further upgrades are did not require anymore or practical? There are diverse feelings on this and a great part of the proof
is narrative, yet innovation advancement
is basic to the change of the medication disclosure process and worth talking about.
Side effects of antibiotics
Antibiotic Tests and Treatment
2. Antibiotic Therapy
Key to all great antibiotic (or any other) treatment is conclusion to the principles. At whatever point an anti-infection is endorsed
it ought to be for a particular finding whether it is a conditional clinical conclusion or not. An anti-infection ought not to be endorsed for a "urinary tract contamination
" it ought to be recommended
for cystitis, pyelonephritis or prostatitis
for instance. Recommending and antibiotic for a "hack" is incredible. Hack could be a side effect of many conditions with pneumonia or serious COPD intensification
being the main particular conditions for which anti-microbial treatment is demonstrated. Every time you mull over solution of an anti-microbial choose a particular determination
. Your antibiotic decisions can then be educated by trusted treatment rules, for example, these made in the Vancouver Island Health Authority.
Use of Antimicrobial Combinations
Common Misuses of Antibiotics
Production in Antibiotics
Antibiotic Resistance and Prevention
3. Drug Discovery Technologies in Antibiotics
Innovation has been a noteworthy driver of advances in medication disclosure
. Computerization, Nano fluidics
, imaging, programming and test advances have assumed a noteworthy part in showing signs of improvement information, quicker. Is medication
disclosure at such a propelled state, to the point that further upgrades are did not require anymore or practical? There are diverse feelings on this and a great part of the proof
is narrative, yet innovation advancement is basic to the change of the medication
disclosure process and worth talking about.
Drug Discovery Technologies
Applications to exploit actinomycetes as a resource for new antibiotics
Antimicrobials by immune stimulation
Molecular and functional genomic approaches to novel antibacterial
Improved microbial identification
4. Pharmacology of Antibiotics
Antimicrobial medications are utilized to avoid or treat contaminations created by pathogenic
microorganisms. The human body and nature contain numerous microorganisms, the vast majority of which live in a condition of adjust with the human host and don't bring about infection
. At the point when the adjustment is problematic and contamination
happens, attributes of the tainting microorganisms
and the ampleness of host barrier systems are central point in the seriousness
of the disease and the individual's capacity to regain. Conditions that debilitate protection instruments increment the occurrence and seriousness of diseases and obstruct recuperation. Also, utilization of antimicrobial
medications may prompt to genuine diseases created by medication safe microorganisms.
5. Medical Use of Antibiotics
An antibiotic is given for the treatment of a contamination brought about by microorganisms
or Bacteria. It is not successful against infections by viruses. On the off chance that you have a disease, it is imperative to know whether it is brought about by microorganisms
or an infection. Most upper respiratory tract contaminations
, for example, the basic icy and sore throats are brought on by infections - anti-infection
agents don't conflict with these viruses. When the mindful pathogenic microorganism
is now known or has been distinguished, complete treatment can be begun. This will for the most part include the utilization of a tight range antibiotic. To keep away from surgery anti-microbial might be given for non-confused intense an infected appendix. Viable treatment has been evidenced. Antibiotics
might be given as a preventive measure (prophylactic) and this is generally constrained to at-hazard populaces, for example, those with a debilitated insusceptible framework
(especially in HIV cases to avoid pneumonia), those taking immunosuppressive
medications, growth patients and those having surgery. Their utilization in surgical systems is to help anticipate contamination of entry points made. They have an imperative part in dental anti-microbial prophylaxis where their utilization may counteract bacteraemia and ensuing infective endocarditis. Anti-infection agents are additionally used to avert contamination in instances of neutropenia especially tumour related.
Some ear and sinus infections
Bladder and kidney infections
6. Antibiotics for Emerging and Re-Emerging Diseases
were the main viable treatment for skin inflammation. They are the most generally endorsed operators and are demonstrated for serious incendiary skin break out, broad trunk skin breaks out and direct facial skin inflammation
not reacting to topical treatments
. Reaction is variable; female patients with facial skin break out react more positively than male patients with stamped seborrhea and skin acne. Systemic antibiotics
ought to be endorsed in a satisfactory
measurement and the recurrence and span proceeded for whatever length of time that they are considered to work. Patients with skin inflammation
are frequently regarded with numerous antibiotic
agents and as a result, their vegetation is presented to a critical particular weight for resistance improvement.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR)
Emerging infectious diseases
Reemerging infectious diseases
Emergence of Antimicrobial Resistance
Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Resistance
7. Antibiotics in Oncology
Down to earth rules for the conclusion and treatment of unending prostatitis are exhibited. Interminable prostatitis is delegated ceaseless bacterial prostatitis (culture-positive) and perpetual fiery prostatitis (culture-negative). In the event that constant bacterial prostatitis
is suspected, in view of important indications
or intermittent UTIs, fundamental urological conditions ought to be rejected by the accompanying tests: rectal examination, midstream urine culture and lingering urine. The determination ought to be affirmed by the Meares and Stamey strategy. Antibiotic treatment is prescribed for intense intensifications of unending prostatitis, endless bacterial prostatitis and perpetual provocative prostatitis
, if there is clinical, bacteriological
or supporting immunological
proof of prostate contamination. Unless a patient presents with fever, anti-microbial treatment ought not to be started quickly aside from in instances of intense prostatitis or intense scenes in a patient with ceaseless bacterial prostatitis.
8. Antibiotics of Veterinary Importance
Anti-toxins are one of the most significant
instruments in a veterinarian's tool compartment since they fix bacterial sickness in creatures. Without them, creatures would endure or even kick the bucket on account of annihilating maladies like Bacillus anthracis or pneumonia. Much the same as individuals, creatures need anti-toxins to ward off disease and protect their well being. Anti-infection agents ensure the welfare of creatures. Created by living life forms, anti-microbial
work by slaughtering unsafe microorganisms or by constraining
its development and preventing diseases from spreading. This keeps livestock liberated from infection
just as permitting pets to live long and sound lives. What's more, anti-infection agents can be instrumental in containing risky and infectious malady, while decreasing the requirement
for more or a lot more grounded prescriptions later on. At the point when a creature gives indications of infection, anti-infection
agents can be immediately conveyed to treat the debilitated
creature and secure the remainder of a crowd or group. The capable utilization
to envision and forestall a malady flare-up has a key impact in great creature welfare. All things considered, counteraction is superior to fix, and not becoming ill in any case saves creatures the pressure of both disease and resulting treatment.
Beta Lactam Antibiotics
9. Interaction and Side-Effects of Antibiotics
Utilization of anti-infection agents in homestead creatures is very overwhelming and broad, and has been a normal routine of ranchers in North America
and Europe for a long while. Most meat, pork, poultry devoured by people contains little measures of anti-microbial. This is an aftereffect of endeavors to expand quality and amount of yield on ranches. The United States utilizes more than 29 million pounds of anti-infection agents in animals every year. The dominant
part of medications is bolstered to creatures to advance their development
in processing plant ranches. A production line ranch is normal for U.S. domesticated animal’s creation and comprises of keeping creatures in high-thickness restriction. Reliably utilizing drugs in homestead creatures raises worries this directing of anti-microbial
has brought about an expansion in the anti-microbial safe microscopic organisms that can be destructive to people. Microorganisms in the human micro biome can figure out how to oppose more medications
since people are presented to slight measures of antibiotics
in the meats that they eat. Antibiotics are utilized as a part of creatures and can help microscopic
organisms get to be distinctly impervious to the same or comparative medications
utilized as a part of people.
Overuse and overprescribing of antibiotics
Superbugs and Super resistance
Risks of antibiotic over usage
Prevention and control
10. The Next Generation Approach of Antibiotics
Wrong recommending, absence of consistence in taking pharmaceuticals
and insightful spread uncontrolled utilization of medications
prompted to development of multidrug resistance in clinically essential irresistible operators. More than 480000 new instances of multidrug-safe tuberculosis
(MDR-TB) were accounted for by WHO in the year 2013 in hundred nations around the world. In this way, there is an earnest requirement for new era antibacterial which can successfully and unequivocally follow up on medication safe microorganisms. Distinctive methodologies
of advancement of resistance in microorganisms
include the progressions at sub-atomic level like transformations, over articulation of compounds and efflux.
Cutting-edge computational methods
11. Antimicrobial Peptides
peptides have been detached and described from tissues and living beings speaking to essentially every kingdom and phylum, going from prokaryotes to people. However, repetitive auxiliary and practical subjects in instruments of activity and protection are seen among peptides of broadly differing source and creation. Biochemical
qualifications among the peptides themselves, target versus have cells, and the microenvironments
in which these partners assemble, likely accommodate differing degrees of specific danger among different antimicrobial peptide sorts. Besides, numerous antimicrobial peptides utilize advanced and dynamic components of activity to impact quick and powerful exercises reliable with their probable parts in antimicrobial
host barrier. In adjust, fruitful microbial
pathogens have developed multifaceted and successful countermeasures to dodge presentation to and subvert components of antimicrobial peptides. A clearer acknowledgment of these restricting topics will essentially propel our comprehension of how antimicrobial peptides work in safeguard against disease. Moreover, this comprehension
may give new models and systems to creating novel antimicrobial
operators, that may likewise enlarge insusceptibility, reestablish
power or intensify the components of traditional anti-microbials, and limit antimicrobial protection
instruments among pathogens. From these points of view, the aim of this audit is to show the contemporary auxiliary and useful topics among components of antimicrobial peptide activity and protection.
Structure and Major Activities of AMPs
Major Categories of AMPs
Mechanism of Action of AMPs
New Targets of AMPs
Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides
12. Mechanisms of Antibacterial Resistance
The bacterial protein LexA may assume a key part in the obtaining of bacterial
transformations offering imperviousness to quinolones and rifampicin. DNA
harm initiates the SOS quality repressor LexA to experience autoproteolytic action. This incorporates the translation of qualities encoding Pol II, Pol IV, and Pol V, which are three unimportant DNA polymerases
that are required for transformation in light of DNA damage. The anti-microbial
activity against the pathogen can be viewed as an ecological weight. Those microbes with a transformation that permits them to survive live to imitate. They then pass this quality to their posterity, which prompts to the development
of a completely safe settlement. Despite the fact that these chromosomal transformations may appear to profit the microorganisms by giving anti-infection
resistance, they additionally present a cost of wellness.
Enzymatic degradation of antibacterial drugs
Alteration of bacterial proteins
Changes in membrane permeability to antibiotics
Exogenous resistance genes
13. Genetics of Antimicrobial Resistance
Antimicrobial safe strains of microscopic organisms are an expanding risk to creature and human wellbeing. Resistance systems to go around the dangerous activity of antimicrobials
have been distinguished and depicted for every single known antimicrobial
at present accessible for clinical use in human and veterinary drug. Gained bacterial anti-microbial resistance can come about because of the transformation of typical cell qualities, the obtaining of remote resistance qualities, or a blend of these two components. The most widely recognized resistance
systems utilized by microorganisms
incorporate enzymatic debasement or adjustment of the antimicrobial, change in the antimicrobial target site, diminished cell divider penetrability to antimicrobials, and dynamic efflux of the antimicrobial over the cell layer. The spread of versatile hereditary components, for example, plasmids
, transposons, and integrons has incredibly added to the fast dispersal of antimicrobial
resistance among a few bacterial genera of human and veterinary significance
. The adaptability with which microbes adjust to their surroundings and trade DNA between various genera highlights the need to execute powerful antimicrobial stewardship and contamination control programs in both human and veterinary drug.
Antibiotic resistance genes
Horizontal genetic transfers
14. Alternatives to Antibiotics
Germs are all over and everywhere. Some move to our bodies and benefit us, for example, the cordial microscopic organisms that colonize the linings of the insides, upper respiratory
tract, and lower urinary framework, out-contending awful microorganisms
, adding to safe protection and great absorption. Different organisms – infections, microscopic organisms, parasites – wreak devastation when they attack our bodies. Luckily, various herbs have antimicrobial
impacts. A number of these herbs are culinary
herbs and flavors, for example, garlic, ginger, thyme, and cinnamon. That implies, regardless of where you will be, you can likely locate a home grown partner at the neighborhood market. Herbs don't go about as fast or as strongly as medications. For genuine diseases, antibiotics
can spare lives. Then again, herbs create fewer symptoms and don't appear to be connected with the microbial resistance that sicknesses anti-infection agent.
15. Antibiotics: Countries
With antibiotic resistance
and abuse a noteworthy worldwide concern, and a critical test for worldwide social insurance suppliers and strategy producers alike, understanding the world's utilization of anti-infection agents is a vital step.
It’s in Turkey where individuals
take the most antibiotics – 42.2 measurements are endorsed per 1,000 individuals consistently.
Greece is next with somewhere in the range of 10 dosages bringing down at 32.2. The main three is finished by France with 30.1. The rundown is altogether involved European
countries, with Belgium
, Italy and Luxembourg every returning figure in abundance of 25 measurements
endorsed every day. Spain, Ireland, Slovakia and Poland finish the main 10. The OECD normal sits at 20.7, with the most minimal utilization of anti-infection agents found in Chile – only 9.4 measurements.
Global impact of antibiotics
Clinical and economic impact of antibiotic resistance
An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or inhibits their growth. They are classified according to their mode of action on specific microorganism
.Depending on the range of bacterial species susceptible to these agents antibacterial
are classified as broad spectrum, intermediate-spectrum, or narrow- spectrum. Multidrug resistant (MDR) are those microbes which are resistant to multiple antimicrobials .Resistant microorganisms
(compiling fungi, bacteria, parasites and viruses) have the ability to withstand effects of antimicrobial drugs.
Antibacterial drugs are chemical compounds used to treat infections caused by bacteria either by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria. The term antibiotic is often used synonymously with an antibacterial. However, antibiotics are agents that work against microorganisms
such as bacteria, fungi, and parasites
but are not effective against viruses. The term antibiotic was originally coined to refer to any compound of microbial origin, which is antagonistic
to the growth of the microbe. Antibacterial acts via various mechanisms such as the inhibition of cell wall synthesis, the inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis, the disruption of the cell membrane, and the inhibition of protein synthesis
. They can be bacteriostatic or bactericidal
in nature, i.e., they either block vital processes in bacteria
, kill the bacteria, or halt them from growing. Antibiotics
that affect a wide range of bacteria are called broad-spectrum antibiotics (e.g., amoxicillin and gentamicin). Antibiotics that affect only a few types of bacteria are called narrow spectrum antibiotics (e.g., penicillin).
Antibacterial usage is expected to decrease slightly in developed countries as a result of an increasing pressure to combat antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Despite this, the antibacterial
drug market is forecast to grow from USD27.7 Billion in 2017 to USD35.6 Billion in 2022, at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.97%.
Global antibacterial vaccination market is expected to experience
healthy growth across the forecast period due to rising profits for several classes of drugs. Vaccines will still be the leading revenue-generating drugs in the market in 2022, despite the influx of new protein synthesis inhibitors and the release of several new cell-wall synthesis inhibitors.
Antibiotics: technologies and global markets provides an in-depth analysis of the global market trends for systemic antibiotics
with data from 2016, estimated data from 2013, and projected data for 2018. Rising concerns over healthcare costs have driven many pharmaceutical
companies to look for alternatives
to maintain their existing profits while improving them in the future. The report includes the profiles and market shares of seven key players in the global antibiotics market.
Multiplayer solution in 2016, UN Member States committed to addressing the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
. Indeed, AMR is expected to affect the potential
achievement of Sustainable Development
Goal 3 (Good Health & Wellbeing), among others. That AMR has risen up the global agenda is due at Four main groups of pathogenic microorganisms
are relevant to current efforts to curb AMR: bacteria (such as those causing pneumonia and meningitis), viruses (such as HIV), fungi (such as Candida) and parasites (such as Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malaria). There is large variation among these groups in how resistance
emerges and is transferred.
Global Antibiotics Market By Region, Through 2021($ Millions)
The antibiotics market was valued at USD 39.8 million in 2015 and is expected to witness a CAGR of 4.0% over the forecast period. Increasing efforts are being witnessed toward the development
of advanced products. According to the data published by the Pew Charitable
Trust, in March 2016, about 37 promising molecules were being investigated within the U.S. market. Majority of these, are in phase II clinical trials and are anticipated to hit the market between 2018 - 2020.
market is expected to reach USD 57.0 billion by 2024, according to the new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Rising prevalence of infectious diseases especially in developing regions such as Asia Pacific and MEA is anticipated to contribute
towards market growth. North America
dominated the animal antimicrobials and antibiotics
markets. However, the market share of this region will decrease to 27%, primarily due to the regulatory ban on the use of antibiotics
announced in the U.S. At the same time, Asia and Latin America are poised to grow at a CAGR of 6% to 8% in the forecast period; this growth is largely driven by the increased urbanization
, rising disposable incomes, increase in the demand for animal products and the increasing trend of pet ownerships in these regions.
More than 15.0% of the deaths, in children below the age of five, are estimated to be due to pneumonia and according to the statistics provided by the WHO about 9.2 million deaths were recorded
resistance is a serious problem globally. New antibiotics to tackle resistant bacteria are urgently needed; however, a recent report from the European
Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) warns of an almost empty pipeline, leaving patients vulnerable to dangerous
infections. If new antibiotics are not developed, the entire healthcare industry could face challenges not seen since the pre-bacteria era. Public-private partnerships are encouraging specific programs
that will address these needs; in certain regions, government
agencies are working with the pharmaceutical
industry to provide support to the declining antibiotic pipeline. “Development of novel antibiotics to combat multidrug-resistant strains, and targeting non-multiplying
bacteria are expected to play a vital role in market growth,”
Asia pacific Region
The global market for systemic antibiotics
is expected to grow to $41.2 billion by 2018 with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 0.8% between 2013 through 2018. Asian countries
account for the fastest-growing market with a five-year CAGR of 1.2% due to the increasing aging population, increasing GDP rate and increasing awareness about healthcare.
The global systemic antibiotics market is primarily driven by the aging population worldwide, the increasing prevalence of hospital-acquired
infections, and the resultant
increase in infectious disease and rising demand for novel antibiotics from the pharmaceutical industry.
Nevertheless, a major paradigm shift in the regulatory framework
has caused a positive impact on the overall growth of the antibiotics
market. Economic conditions and cost-containment
issues have compelled North American
and European antibiotic manufacturers to explore new regions, such as India, China and Brazil, for growth opportunities.